Their calculated risk
Risk of prostate cancer if biopsy were to be performed
What the results mean
based on the risk factors a prostate biopsy performed would have a:
- % chance of high-grade prostate cancer
- % chance of low-grade prostate cancer
- % chance the biopsy is negative for cancer
- 2-4% of men undergoing biopsy will have an infection that may require hospitalization
Information about calculator input
Prostate Specific Antigen Level (PSA)
This is the result, in nanograms per mililiter, of the PSA blood test. PSA has to be between 0 and 50 [ng/ml]. Zero is not a valid PSA value.
Family History of Prostate Cancer
Choose Yes if a father, brother, or son had prostate cancer.
Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
Digital Rectal Examination is a test performed by a health care professional in which a gloved finger is placed in the rectum to feel the surface of the prostate. It is normal if the prostate is smooth and soft. It is abnormal if an area of firmness or a nodule is noted.
Prior Prostate Biopsy
Past Negative Biopsy: One or more prior biopsies, all negative, no prior diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Note: The Calculator is only applicable for persons without a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Percent free PSA
Percent free PSA gives the ratio of free PSA to PSA; this value is directly provided by the manufacturer so that it is not necessary for the user to divide by PSA. Percent free PSA has to be between 5 and 75.
Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3, also referred to as DD3) is a gene that expresses a non-coding RNA. PCA3 is only expressed in human prostate tissue, and the gene is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer.
T2:ERG is an advanced urine-based prostate cancer marker.
First degree relatives with prostate cancer younger than 60
This is the number of first degree relatives (biological father, brother or son) who were diagnosed at age younger than 60. Choose between "No", "Yes, one" or "Yes, two or more".
First degree relatives with prostate cancer older than 60
This is the number of first degree relatives (biological father, brother or son) who were diagnosed at age 60 or older. Choose between "No", "Yes, one" or "Yes, two or more".
First degree relatives with breast cancer
This is the number of first degree relatives (biological mother, sister or daughter) with breast cancer diagnosed at any age. Choose between "No" and "Yes, one or more".
Second degree relatives with prostate cancer
This is the number of second degree relatives (biological grandfather, uncle, nephew or grandson) with prostate cancer diagnosed at any age. Choose between "No" and "Yes, one or more".
Ankerst DP, Hoefler J, Bock S, Goodman PJ, Vickers A, Hernandez J, Sokoll LJ, Sanda MG, Wei JT, Leach RJ, Thompson IM. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator 2.0 for the prediction of low- versus high-grade prostate cancer. Urology 83(6): 1362-7, 2014.
Grill S, Fallah M, Leach RJ, Thompson IM, Freedland S, Hemminki K, Ankerst DP, Incorporation of Detailed Family History from the Swedish Family-Cancer Database into the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator, The Journal of Urology® (2014), doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2014.09.018.